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Contraindications of skin traction

Elderly people are usually not good candidates for skin traction because their skin is fragile and may be injured from the traction. Traction may also be contraindicated if you have: Osteoporosi Contraindications Abrasions and lacerations of skin in the area to which traction is to be applied Impairment of circulation - Varicose veins, impending gangrene Dermatitis When there is marked shortening of the bony fragments, the traction weight required will be more then 6.7 kg which cannot be applied through the skin 16 Adhesive skin traction can cause skin reactions. Apply a test patch to the child's skin before applying traction. If the adhesive skin traction causes a reaction, apply non-adhesive skin extensions. 2. 5. Do not. apply substances that increase adhesion to the skin such as Tincture benzoin Contraindications to arthroscopic trapeziometacarpal arthroplasty include any general contraindication to thumb arthroscopy, including distortion of the anatomy due to swelling, unstable or friable skin that would preclude the use of traction, and recent infection. Eaton stage IV disease is a relative contraindication, although an arthroscopic hemitrapeziectomy combined with an arthroscopic debridement or limited resection of the distal scaphoid is an option

Traction: Uses, Side Effects, Procedure, Result

Traction is contraindicated with any acute injury process, explain Kisner and Colby. The mechanical force of traction can aggravate existing inflammation and any new strains or sprains of the cervical muscles and ligaments. Osteomyleliti Contraindications for skin traction include a severe injury with open wounds, an allergy to tape or other skin traction equipment, circulatory disturbances, dermatitis, and varicose veins. With skeletal traction, an orthopedist inserts a pin or wire through the bone and attaches the traction equipment to the pin or wire to exert a direct, constant, longitudinal pulling force

Contraindications include non-midshaft location and associated knee or tibia-fibula fractures. Most patients with multiple trauma should be extricated on vacuum mattresses or spine boards [173. Skin traction contraindications • Abrasion and lacerations of skin in the area to which traction is to be applied • Disturbance in blood circulation such as varicose vein or impending gangrene • Dermatitis 9. Skin traction complications • Allergic reactions • Excoriation of skin • Pressure sores • Common peroneal nerve pals Skin traction is used when the soft tissues, such as the muscles and tendons, need to be repaired. Less force is applied during skin traction to avoid irritating or damaging the skin and other. Sham traction is a low-weight or placebo traction that the given researcher considers to be ineffective. Three studies used motorized traction (2 on a split tabletop, 1 on a plain tabletop)), 1 used autotraction, 1 used gravitational traction, and 1 used traction as part of bedrest Main exclusion criteria: Refused informed consent or consent could not be obtained (e.g., dementia), contraindications for use of skin traction (e.g., poor skin, ulceration of lower limb, peripheral arterial disease, severe edema and lower limb deformities

As per a study done by Kisner and Colby, cervical traction is contraindicated in presence of rheumatoid arthritis. This is because rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disease which causes weakening and damage of ligaments that support the cervical vertebrae Skin traction also refers to specialized practices, such as Dunlop's traction, used on children when a fractured arm must maintain a flexed position to avoid circulatory and neurological problems. Buck's skin traction stabilizes the knee, and reduces muscle spasm for knee injuries not involving fractures Fragile or delicate skin In the elderly or patients with allergy to Elastoplast (Zinc) hypoallergenic skin traction bandages are available. Contraindications to Skin Traction; Force required > 5kg; Skin damage or sepsis in area; Indications Skeletal Traction. Adults requiring > 5kg traction; Skin damage requiring dressings; Long term ; Counter Traction Contraindications Of Skin Traction: 1.Abarasions Of Skin. 2.Lacerations Of Skin In Area To Which Traction Has To Apply. 3.Circulation Impairment(Impending Gangrene) 4.Varicose Ulcers. 5.Dermatitis. Common Sites For Skeletal Traction: Olecranon. Greater Trochanter. Lower End Of Femur. Upper & lower End Of Tibia. Calcaneum. Care Of Patients In Traction Compound fractures of the Femur with bone fragments sticking through the skin may be a contraindication. Guidelines by local protocol or instructions by a Medical Consultant should be followed. Fractures of the Ankle and Foot are also contraindicated. Pressure from the ankle harness and from traction is not therapeutic

Gaining Traction with Femoral Shaft Fractures — Brown

Presentation for skin traction - SlideShar

  1. Electrophysical Agents- Contraindications and Precautions: An evidenced based Approach to Clinical Decision Making in Physical Therapy. Physiother Can. 2010;Fall62(5)1-80 Bellew JW, MIchlovits SL, Nolan, TP. Modalities for Therapeutic Intervention, 6th edition. FA Davis. Philadelphia, PA.2016. Chapter 11.
  2. Applies traction force through a traction boot or skin traction in a straight line. cervical traction. stabilizing spinal fracture or injuries, muscle spasms or muscle contractures. Contraindications to skin tractions. sever injury with open wound, allergy to tape, thrombophlebitis, circulatory disturbances, varicose veins
  3. Further, any condition for which movement is contraindicated also is a contraindication for traction. 54 Relative contraindications include acute strains and sprains that would be aggravated by traction. 19 Traction applied to patients with joint instability may cause further strain and should be carefully monitored if applied at all. Other relative contraindications may include pregnancy, osteoporosis, hiatal hernia, and claustrophobia

Compound fractures of the Femur with bone fragments sticking through the skin may be a contraindication. Guidelines by local protocol or instructions by a Medical Consultant should be followed. Our teaching regarding compound femur fractures is to use the traction splint without applied traction to stabilize the long bone fracture if possible Traction is usually advisable in following conditions: 1. Spinal nerve root impingement: Herniated disc; Ligament encroachment; Narrowing of the inter vertebral foramen; Osteophyte encroachmen No scientific reports clearly delineate contraindications for traction. The practitioner must rely on empiric information and expert consensus. Old age has been cited as a relative.. Contraindications: UV therapy is contraindicated for treatment over eyes, skin cancer/malignancy, organ disease (heart, lung, kidneys), SLE, fevers, acute inflammation. LLLT also has contraindications for those with irradiation of the neck region in hyperhidrosis, seizure, epilepsy. 1

Contraindications and Precautions of IR • Acute inflammatory conditions • Impaired cutaneous thermal sensation and circulation • Peripheral vascular disease • Markedly loss of consciousness. • Acute skin disease, e.g., dermatitis or eczema • Deep X-ray therapy • Defective blood pressure regulation • Acute febrile illness (Fever Skin grafting is a closure technique used in dermatology most commonly to close wounds created by the removal of skin cancer. contraindications of skin grafts and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in managing these patients before and after surgery. An assistant can use forceps to gently grasp and apply traction to. Adv Skin Wound Care 2003;16(7):369-371. ↑ Snyder-Mackler L, Bork CE. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on peripheral sensory nerve latency. Phys Ther 1988;68(2):223-225. ↑ Houghton PE, Nussbaum EL, Hoens AM. Electrophysical agents - contraindications and precautions: An evidence-based approach to clinical decision making in physical. Start studying Contraindications and precautions for all sections. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

Contraindications for skin traction include a severe injury with open wounds, an allergy to tape or other skin traction equipment, circulatory disturbances, dermatitis, and varicose veins. With skeletal traction, an orthopedist inserts a pin or wire through the bone and attaches the traction equipment to the pin or wire to exert a direct. Manual skin traction facilitates smooth gliding of handpiece and uniform delivery of microneedles across the skin. This article explores the indications, contraindications, risks, benefits and.

Contraindications Of Traction Traction devices are contraindi-cated for the following conditions: • Any Threat To Life!Patient unconscious (unable to protect airway), or having difficulty breathing or life-threatening bleeding. • Any Other Injury on the affected limb, includ-ing the knee, ankle o Contraindications Abrasions and lacerations of skin in the area to which traction is to be applied Impairment of circulation - Varicose veins, impending gangrene Dermatitis When there is marked shortening of the bony fragments, the traction weight required will be more then 6.7 kg which cannot be applied through the skin Modalities - Indications, Contraindications, Precautions, and Parameters. 2-5 swipes, 4 inch/sec, along muscle fibers and trigger point. Initial: 7-9 lbs, static, 5-10 Joint distraction (facet pain): 20-29 lbs, 15 on/15 seconds off for 20-30 minutes Decrease muscle spasm: 11-15 lbs, 5/5, 20-30 minutes Disc Problem/Tissue stretch: 11-15 lbs.

Traction(orthopedics)

Indications Contraindications Those who have been deemed a candidate for adjunctive therapies, see Determining andidacy for Adjunctive Therapies Wound etiologies: o Diabetic foot ulcers (1A) o Pressure injuries (1B) o Surgical wounds, i.e. acute incisions, skin flaps, donor sites, and dehiscence (1B) o Venous leg ulcers (2 Contraindications for Spinal Traction Traction is known to be a safe procedure with therapeutic value in helping patients with spine-related pain. It is recommended that a detailed history, physical examination, and radiologic studies be performed prior to implementing cervical and lumbar traction techniques sandbags or skin traction. Careful palpation of the leg, paying attention to the knee and shin as well as the thigh and hip may give an indication of other injuries. Routine tests are done to evaluate blood loss and general body biochemistry prior to an anesthetic One of the contraindication for skin traction is a) fracture femur in children b) fracture neck of femur c) wounds on the limb d) all the above 7. During skin traction application, why do you leave sufficient room between the patients foot and the end of the skin traction kit extension Contraindications for Skin Traction • Patients with loose skin • Wounds on the limb • Circulation problem- gangrene/ varicose veins • Skin infection 33. Complications of Skin Traction • Allergy • Muscular atrophy • Paralysis • Oedema 34. SKELETAL TRACTION • More powerful than skin traction • May pull up to 20% of body weight.

Skin versus Skeletal Traction. The skin can only take about 5kg traction in an adult. If more than this force is required to obtain on maintain a reduction Skeletal traction must be used. Avoid skeletal traction in children - growth plates can easily be damaged by skeletal pins. Indications for Skin Traction Contraindications. Do not apply skin traction to a limb with abrasions, lacerations, ulcers of the skin, loss of sensation, impending gangrene, atrophic skin, or peripheral vascular disease. Skin traction is also contraindicated in the treatment of marked overriding of fracture fragments or of gross, long-standing deformities.. Non-Adhesive Skin Traction Kit. High performance elastic bandage for extra security; Good skin friction characteristics; High conformability for easy application; Contraindications / Precautions. Abrasions or skin lacerations; Impairment of circulation; Traction weight greater than that which can be applied through the skin Skin graft contraindications Absolute contraindications for grafting include incomplete removal of cancer, active infection, and uncontrolled bleeding. Relative contraindications include smoking, an anticoagulant medication, bleeding disorder, chronic corticosteroids, or malnutrition 12) Tensoplast Skin Traction Kit Adhesive and Non-Adhesive. Low allergy adhesive or non-adhesive skin traction kit allows reliable and secure. Features & Benefits Excellent conformability for easy application Compression bandage for extra security Good skin friction characteristics. Contraindications / Precautions Abrasions or skin laceration

Traction (orthopedics) Early Greek traction device, from a Byzantine edition of Galen 's work in the 2nd century AD. ICD-9-CM. 93.4. MeSH. D014143. [ edit on Wikidata] Traction is a set of mechanisms for straightening broken bones or relieving pressure on the spine and skeletal system. There are two types of traction: skin traction and skeletal. INTRODUCTION — Lumbar puncture (LP) with examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an important diagnostic tool for a variety of infectious and noninfectious neurologic conditions.. The techniques, indications, contraindications, and complications of LP in adults will be reviewed here. Technique of LP in children and for spinal and other types of neuraxial anesthesia is discussed separately A Caesarean section is the delivery of a baby through a surgical incision in the abdomen and uterus.. In western countries, Caesarean section rates have increased rapidly over the last decade. The reason for this is multifactorial, but relates in part to a rise in medicolegal cases, alongside greater access to healthcare and the equipment and expertise needed

Splints and Tractions

shows that supine cervical traction overall is best.2,6,10 The Saunders device ensures continuity between home and clinical treatments. Many clinicians prescribe home traction after showing benefit with clinical treatments. The most common method of administering clinical traction is with the Saunders Clinical Traction device Skin maneuver: performed with the use of index, middle and ring finger, consists in grasping the skin with the fingers above, exerting a traction. Maneuver of the band: it is a manipulation that causes a cutting sensation of the skin. Detachment maneuver: involves performing a traction of the skin using the index and thumb In cases where there are contraindications to surgery and/or socio-economic issues do not permit fracture fixation, Thomas's splint traction can be used as the definitive method of treatment. Tinc Benz Co is used on the skin of the leg to improve the adhesion of the adhesive traction strip Split-thickness skin grafts are otherwise indicated in acute skin loss (burn wounds, traumatic wounds, infection), chronic skin loss (leg ulcers), and as adjuncts to other procedures (to cover a muscle flap). Contraindications. Absolute contraindications: wounds with an active infection, active bleeding, or known cancer

Contraindication - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Ask someone to help hook the heavy frame to the bed. Follow the instructions that come with the frame. Make sure all of the bolts on the frame are tight. Hang the triangle-shaped trapeze from the metal bar with the chain and bolts. Check the length of the chain to make sure you can reach the trapeze easily PRECAUTIONS. Safety and effectiveness has not been established for pediatric use, pregnancy, unborn fetus, or delivery. Avoid activities that put stress on the implanted neurostimulation system components. Recharging a rechargeable neurostimulator may result in skin irritation or redness near the implant site Mary Crosswell PT DPT CLT, Adrian Cristian MD, MHCM, in Breast Cancer and Gynecologic Cancer Rehabilitation, 2021. Manual Lymphatic Drainage. MLD is a specialized manual therapy technique centered on the anatomy of the lymphatic system. The light tissue compression used in the course of MLD is aimed at reducing swelling through improved lymphatic contractility, uptake of interstitial fluid. Drugs.com provides accurate and independent information on more than 24,000 prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines and natural products. This material is provided for educational purposes only and is not intended for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated 2 Aug 2021), Cerner Multum™ (updated 3 Aug 2021), ASHP (updated 30 July 2021. gallows traction: A form of skin traction for infants and children with femoral fractures who weigh less than 12 kg, in which lower limb traction is effected using adhesive plaster Complications Leg ischaemia; GT has been used in children after cerclage for rectal prolaps

Cervical Traction Contraindications Healthfull

While applying counter traction to the skin around the insertion site, puncture the skin with the needle tip. Lower the applicator so it is parallel to the skin and aim towards the guiding mark. Advance the needle/applicator to its full length subdermally while lifting the skin with the tip of the needle to avoid muscle or deep tissue penetration Dry Heat Therapy relieves localized pain, increases localized blood circulation, increases range of motion and relieves minor pain and stiffness associated with nonrheumatoid arthritis. Single Extremity Unit is for treating the hand, wrist, elbow, foot and ankle. Includes thirty pounds (13.6 kg) of Cellex Dry Heat Media

Any release of binder for assessment of skin integrity and length of time released. Removal of binder - by whom, date, time, and skin integrity, post removal. Documentation of neurovascular status of lower limbs prior to application and after binder is in place and at regular intervals if binder is in place more than 12 hours Laminoforaminotomy means a foraminotomy is often performed at the same time as a laminectomy or a laminotomy. The combination o

Traction Contraindications. •Acute spine trauma, acute inflammation (RA), patients who received surgical stabilization or decompression or spine implants or prosthetic discs, severe respiratory disease, when traction peripheralizes symptoms, malignancy, infectious diseases of spine, uncontrolled HTN, spinal cord compression, AA, frail older. Adhesive skin traction : Prepare the skin by shaving as well as washing & applying tincture benzoin which protects the skin and acts as an additional adhesive. Contraindications . Abrasions and lacerations of skin in the area to which traction is to be applied . Varicose veins, impending gangrene Contraindications Abrasions and lacerations of skin in the area to which traction is to be applied Varicose veins, impending gangrene Dermatitis When there is marked shortening of the bony fragments as the traction weight required is greater than which can be applied through the skin Browse over 1 million classes created by top students, professors, publishers, and experts Contraindications There has been on ongoing controversy over the various and diverse contraindication for electrotherapy modalities over recent years. Many of the widely held beliefs in this area have been challenged in that there appears to be little by way of 'concrete evidence' for many and a lot of anecdotal evidence and supposition about.

Motion restrictions Contraindications: •Limits flexion and extension •Three-column spinal. between T6-L1 fractures involving anterior, Indications: middle, and posterior spinal. •Symptomatic relief of structures. compression fractures T6-L1 •Compression fractures above. •Immobilization after surgical T6, because segmental motion Some contraindications for electrical stimulation do exist, however. Due to its electrical nature, electrical stimulation can interfere with devices inside your body. As it also causes muscles to contract, it is also wise to consider whether the body party you want to stimulate is capable of dealing with the muscle force Cervical traction may be effective in helping to treat Capsulitis of the cervical spine. Be sure that the cervical spine has been cleared for any of the contraindications mentioned within the General Guidelines section. Traction may also be more beneficial when used with other modalities such as cold, heat, ultrasound, etc. SUGGESTED SETTING Massage therapy appears to have few serious risks -- if it is performed by a properly trained therapist and if appropriate cautions are followed. The number of serious injuries reported is very small. Side effects of massage therapy may include temporary pain or discomfort, bruising, swelling and a sensitivity or allergy to massage oils

Lumbar Traction - Physiopedia

Typically, this is detected in acne-prone or oily skin types, but that doesn't mean other skin types don't need a thorough inspection and cleaning, as well. The forehead, nose, cheek and chin are the easiest areas from which to remove buildup because they typically consist of blackheads, due to greater oil production Transfer Method Physiologic Effects Indications Contraindications Spinal Traction Mechanical (Potential energy), Distracting Force Reduce compression, pain, and irritation of nerve root and disc. Reduce tension of ligaments, muscles, and facet joints joints-Disc herniation with nerve impingement -Spondylolisthesis -Narrowed intervertebra traction is only effective if applied when the traction unit is in direct contact with the skin of the neck, not over clothing.) Step #4 Lay supine (on your back) on the treatment table with the neck between the neck wedges of the cervical traction device. Adjust the neck wedges appropriately so that they are snug around your neck Risks and Contraindications. Risks associated with needle placement or with the injection of diagnostic/therapeutic substances, including the local anesthetic and steroid suspension, include, infection, bleeding, nerve injury, transient numbness or weakness, paralysis, contrast reaction (allergy), adrenal suppression, and fluid retention with. Indications and Contraindications for Ultrasound Therapy Ultrasound therapy is a popular method of treatment for chiropractors, physical therapists, and other medical care providers. It involves transferring sound waves with frequencies greater than the human sound spectrum (above 20 kilohertz) into a patient

3.4.3.3 Inspect skin integrity. 3.4.3.4 Place an incontinent pad/towel against the sheein to prevent the sheein from getting wet then, with a damp washcloth, wash the torso. 3.4.3.5 Dry the skin thoroughly These include open wounds, broken bones, skin conditions, open sores, burns, sprains and other injuries, and advanced pregnancy (visible big belly). along with certain stretches you should avoid traction moves of the arm. 3. Pregnancy. Sometimes contraindications are obvious, and at other times they are in a gray zone which requires the. Please remember the following: Use a very small amount of traction. You should not be feeling the child pull back against you. Hold the gentle traction for approximately 3-5 minutes or longer per leg. Stay within the available, painfree range. In the spastic child, begin proximally and work distally with the child's comfort zone

Mechanical Traction Management Nurse Ke

contraindications: History of cold injury, frostbite or adverse reactions to cold therapy Incoherence due to sedation, anesthesia, coma or sleep Decreased skin sensitivity or localized circulation or wound healing problems, including those caused by multiple surgical procedures irculatory syndromes due to Raynaud's disease, uerger' Contraindications For Electric Therapy Those with a Pacemaker or Heart Disease. Additionally, Lymphedema can cause skin swelling and compromise the skin's integrity. TENS units should only be used on healthy skin. Conclusion. If you aren't dealing with any of the above conditions, TENS units can be a great way to get safe and effective pain.

Counter-traction on the edges of the foreskin while the physician makes the slit with scissors is helpful . The preputial skin should then be held perpendicular from the shaft of the penis and. A permacath is a name for a tunneled hemodialysis catheters — Tunneled dialysis catheters are generally double-lumen catheters with a polyester cuff positioned 1 to 2 cm from the skin exit site usually on the chest. Catheters are generally composed of silicone and other polymers, like thin polyurethane, which are less thrombogenic than the materials used in non-tunneled catheters This article highlights the advantages and disadvantages, indications and contraindications, and the potential benefits, so health professionals can understand the relevant issues and assess and inform patients accordingly. Citation: Yates A (2016) The risks and benefits of suprapubic catheters. Nursing Times; 112: 6/7, 19-22

(PDF) Traction Splint: To Use or Not to Us

This article explains what is spinal traction, techniques and types of spinal traction like cervical traction and lumbar traction, and its contraindications. Spinal traction like cervical traction and lumbar traction is very effective and does wonders for realigning a dislocation in the cervical spine or lumbar spine and stabilizing the injuries to the cervical/lumbar spine • for prevention or treatment of skin breakdown Contraindications • unstable vertebral fracture • cervical and skeletal traction Risks and Precautions Transfer - Standard precautions should be taken during patient transfer. Rotation / Alternating Pressure (for A and AR models) - Prior to engaging rotatio Skin and Skeletal Traction Indications for Skin Traction. Skin traction is used for conditions that require moderate traction for reduction or comfort. It is limited by the shear resistance of skin, which is about 2 to 4 pounds per limb in younger children and 5 to 7 pounds per limb in older children. If these parameters are exceeded, blisters. Cervical Traction should be avoided in any condition of the cervical spine where movement can aggravate the condition or result in spinal instability, spinal injury and/or nerve root injury at risk for causing paralysis or ischemia. SETUP: 1. Determine the patient's body weight. Tension should be up to 7% - 10% of body weight. 2

Ortho - Splinting, Traction, PO

Femoral and Tibial Traction Pins. - Anesthesia: - skeletal traction can be applied under sedation & local anesthesia; - Distal Femoral Pins: - inserted on medial side to avoid injury to femoral artery on pin exist; - flex the knee and thigh on several folded sheets inorder to facilitate pin insertion from the opposite side of the table (medial to Traction-countertraction is often used to reduce anterior shoulder dislocations. The most commonly used traction-countertraction method requires one or more assistants, physical force, and occasionally, endurance. Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) usually is needed Spinal traction is a treatment option that is based on the application of a longitudinal force to the axis of the spinal column. In other words, parts of the spinal column are pulled in opposite directions in order to stabilize or change the position of damaged aspects of the spine. The force is usually applied to the skull through a series of. Traction is used in the treatment of low back pain   and neck pain to help decrease pain and improve mobility in the spine. To use lumbar traction, you must be strapped into a mechanical machine. There is a vest that helps support your ribs and another device that wraps around your pelvis This stimulated skin wrinkling (SSW) is the result of direct stimulation of digital nerve sympathetic fibers. The resulting effect is a sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction with loss of finger pulp volume, overlying skin traction and wrinkling

Traction in orthopaedicsFemoral and Tibial Traction Pins : Wheeless' Textbook of

Traction: Types, Risks, and Aftercar

Lumbar Traction - Physiopedi

The Saunders Lumbar Traction For Home Use Is Designed To Provide 200 Pounds Of Back Traction Force. The gold standard in home traction devices, the Saunders lumbar traction offers clinical strength spinal decompression used on your back or on your stomach. It can be used on a bed, so you do not have to bend down to the floor. YouTube To the skin. For Adult. Apply 300 micrograms, to the tip of the penis, 5-30 minutes before sexual activity; max 1 dose in 24 hours not more than 2-3 times per week Mirena. Mirena consists of a T-shaped polyethylene frame (T-body) with a steroid reservoir (hormone elastomer core) around the vertical stem. The reservoir consists of a white or almost white cylinder, made of a mixture of levonorgestrel and silicone (polydimethylsiloxane), containing a total of 52 mg levonorgestrel

Presentation for skin traction

Table E-8, Traction - Pain Management Interventions for

Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin condition that occurs when dead skin cells and oil from the skin clog hair follicles. Typical features of the condition include blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. It primarily affects skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back Learn how to interpret menstrual cycle events as vital signs for women. Irregularities in the pattern and amount of vaginal bleeding of uterine origin are often signs of pathology or an aberration in the function of the hypothalamic, pituitary, and ovarian system

SPINAL ANAESTHESIA